Prevalence of Asthma and Allergen in Bolan Medical Complex and Sendeman Provincial Tertiary Care Hospitals Quetta Balochistan


  • Dr. Rab Nawaz Soomro Department of Nursing & Allied Medical Sciences Alhamd Islamic University, Quetta-Balochistan.
  • Safia Rohi Bollan Medical College, Quetta-Balochistan.
  • Aemad Tabasum Department of Nursing & Allied Medical Sciences Alhamd Islamic University, Quetta-Balochistan.



Early Childhood Asthma, Allergen Effects, Family History, Environmental Factors, Pregnancy Factors


The purpose of this study is to assessment in early childhood the allergen effects and asthma in under age of 10 years at Two Tertiary Care Hospitals BMC & SP in Quetta, Balochistan. To determine the risk factor involved in the development of childhood asthma in Quetta, Pakistan. This clinical-based study was conducted from March to August 2023, (06 months). Total 762 children of age 6 months to 10 yearswere enrolled in the study who attended the Pediatrics Department of BMC & SP in Quetta. Children were divided into two groups based on observations and clinical records, one group of asthmatic patients consist of 381 participants while the second control group contains 381 non-asthmatic patients. All 762 children were residents of Quetta and near by areas of Baluchistan. Children with good compliance between the ages of 6 months to 10 years who met the diagnostic criteria for bronchial asthma were part of the study. Children with primary or secondary immunodeficiency, combine with other serious diseases such as liver and kidney failure and arrhythmia. Children who had throat disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchial pneumonia, congenital heart disease, and abnormal respiratory system structure were excluded from study. Patients had a history of allergies (OR= 3.78, 94% Cl= 2.79-4.77), and asthma (OR= 5.2, 94% Cl= 2.15-5.67, P<0.11) were strongly associated with the development of asthma in childhood. From the environmental factors passive smoking had great contribution to develop childhood asthma (OR= 3.17, 94%Cl= (2.63-4.47)), new house renovation (OR= 1.54, 94%CI=1.31-1.53), weather changes (OR= 0.37, 94% Cl= 0.73-0.97), and pet feeding history (OR= 1.39, 94% Cl= 0.31-1.72), also had significant association with childhood asthma. Modestly association was found with obesity (OR=1.04, 94%CI= 0.91-1.13), and cesarean section (OR= 0.28, 94% Cl= 0.16-1.39). Breast feeding (OR= 0.78, 94% Cl= 0.77-0.51) had no association with asthma while premature delivery (OR=3.37, 94%CI=2.65-3.16) low birth weight (OR=2.23, 94%CI=2.74-2.46) and early exposure to antibiotic in infant and young children (OR=1.48, 94%CI= 1.49-3.09) had significant association. Family history had a mean value 176.9 ± 0.68 with p-value <0.004 that means a patient with a family history of asthma were greater, similarly environmental factor was found more common in asthma patients 157.7 ± 0.83. Self-factor (139.5 ± 0.79) and pregnancy factor (94 ± 0.74) had significant impact p=<0.05. The current study indicates that asthma is a multi-factorial disease related to both familial and environmental influences. Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history, environmental factor and self –factor. Pregnancy factors were linked to varying degree of risk of developing asthma. Breast feeding had no significant impact on developing childhood asthma. Children living with at least one smoker were the worst risk factor among all the environmental factors that induce asthma in children. The study also highlights the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking in development of Asthma.